Yeni Padigalil Maandargal by Sri Sivan Sir - Chapter -1


Yenippadigalil Maanthargal - YPM

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Chapter - 1

"Prostrations to Lord Vinayaga who stands revealed in the essence of Vedanta!"


Gradations in Human Levels.

I have classified human beings from Sinner(Papi) to Enlightened (Gnani) depending on one's conduct, character, activities, outlook, mental state etc.

1. Sinner(Papi): Commits sins and wicked deeds. These vary in degree and intensity which I leave to your judgement. (Sir defines them as papam,  maha papam, kodiya papam and pathagam).

2. Pamaran(Ignorant): Commits very minor sins, mistakes and noble deeds.

3. Viveki(Vigilant): Afraid of minor sins. Leads a calm and composed life.

4. Sadhu(Altruist): Absolutely free of ego and hence totally unselfish. He thinks he is born to serve others. A sadhu is sometimes referred to sarcastically by others as "too good" or even an "imbecile"! Sadhu is also wrongly used at those those who sit at a place wearing Rudraksha and Tulasi beads and beg for a living. Granting that such people sit thinking about God I would rather call them "Daiviga Pamarargal".  But I have not referred to this category as sadhu. Hence you must only call those who fulfill all my criteria for sadhu as sadhu. We have a Tamil proverb that reads SADHU MIRANDAL KADU  KOLLADU. (Meaning: Even a forest can't hold a sadhu who is upset). It refers to only this sadhu.

5. Siranda Viveki(stoic): Far sighted man of wisdom. Gives ideal solutions  to those who approach him to resolve knotty and  complicated issues . Leads life with a philosophical mindset.

6. Mutrina Viveki or the sage who has renounced the world(detached): Whether living in a family or not he has transcended all desires and attachment. Practical philosopher. An intellectual said " Absence of all wants is happiness". He lives in such eternal happiness. They sometimes interpret spiritual matters such as soul and self development. This category can be called Pazhutha Viveki if they quit their  home and live on whatever negligible food received unasked. They may shout at those who try to approach them. Both Mutrina Viveki and Pazhutha Viveki perceive world as a reality and hence indulge in worship.

7. Daiva Viveki(The pristine Brahmin): This is a special category of resplendent Brahmins who lived throughout the world and were direct descendents of Maharishis. Totally  detached even if they had a family, they adhered to scriptural injunctions rigorously. Functioning as veritable summits of purity they were in direct contact with Gods and regarded as God by others.

8. Daiva Sadhu(zealous devotees): Fanatical devotees such as Nayanmars, Alwars and Bhaktidasas. Undertake various kinds of divine services to Gods .

9. Mahan(Saint): Whether having a family our not , He is absorbed in God and breathes Him ! Not affected by any inimical force.

10. Thannaiyum Thuranda Thuravi: (hermit who has transcended body conscience): By transcending body conscience and rising above pairs of opposites they give up  attachment even to God. Absorbed in real, permanent bliss.

11. Gnani(Enlightened): Attains oneness with THAT (Parabrahmam) from which everything else including Gods has emanated.

It is natural for those who  read my gradations to become curious about the state in which they are functioning.However if you read my gradations superficially, you will only reach a whimsical, wishful and egoistic conclusion!

For example a pickpocket who is caught by a ruffian may quote my line  :"A sadhu bows to one who rebukes him". A professional musician whose focus is only money and fame may quote my line: "He who sings about the divine plays of God is a Mahan". A person who is living in utter poverty can quote my line: "He who forgoes worldly pleasures is a Mahan".

A person who belongs to a religion that condemns Gods may take advantage of :" Thuravi does not worship Gods". A bed ridden patient may take advantage of : "Thuravi accepts food like medicine". A drunkard who is unconscious most of the time may take advantage of :" Mutrina Viveki is unresponsive to the needs of family". A person who has no children may take advantage of : "Thuravi has no offsprings". An out and out lazy person may take advantage of: "Gnani is inactive.".

If you indulge in this kind of mockery it will tantamount to a blind person equating his eyes to that of an eagle. This may make you a butt of laughter.


You should not try to determine your state without remembering the following points. If you arbitrarily take advantage of a few of my lines for each state, you may come to a preposterous conclusion that you are glowing in many states simultaneously. Hence you should meticulously analyse all my lines for a particular state with regard to conduct, character, mindset etc and only then arrive at a conclusion. (Convince yourself rather than trying to impress others. Impressing others is an unending, costly game in spirituality.)

1. While trying to place yourself, even you consider yourself to be a Viveki, you must write down all the lines that describe a Viveki and satisfy yourself that you fulfill each one of them as regards conduct, mindset etc. Even if you fit into a couple of lines that meant for Pamaran, you should consider yourself only a Pamaran. But if you consciously get rid of those Pamaran qualities, then you can become a Viveki.

2. You should not try to determine your position only after reading a few lines. A person who is thus interested should note down separately all my lines relating to Papi, Pamaran and Viveki and study them in full and in perspective  intently. This will enable them to easily  determine their state  and move up if interested. Indulging in self deception by fulfilling only a percentage of the lines and calling oneself a 30% or 40% Viveki won't do. This is so since a few deeds may be commonly applicable to Papi, Pamaran and Viveki. All the three may donate big money, undertake temple renovation, practise  devotional activities, achieve tremendous popularity, associate with genuine saints and extend hospitality to those who approach them. But all these may have a hidden agenda in the form personal ambition, business opportunity or currying favour with powerful government officials ! Those who fall in this three categories will take thousands of  births to move up.

3. But as far as Siranda Vivekis are concerned even if they don't fulfill a few of their lines, they should be called Siranda Vivekis. They will be reborn as Siranda Vivekis till they complete all the lines.

4. Lastly, from an ordinary sinner to a wicked Pathagan can't call themselves a  Pamaran based on percentage concept even if they fulfill a single line meant for Papi. But if they repent, undertake acts of penitence and ensures that they  never repeat those acts of sins, they can become Pamaran. Penitence consists of begging forgiveness, taking corporal punishment from aggrieved persons or give money/other articles as compensation to them in full  public glare. But my only doubt is whether those vile sinners who are rooted in arrogance and false prestige will be ready to undertake such acts of penitence! If we harm anyone even in mind such acts of penitence should be carried out. This will help one to escape punishment in hell.

It would be safe to entrust this evaluation to your close friends or neighbours since the results may be more objective. (It is very easy to be objective when one is not involved) and hence reliable. But the persons appointed for this purpose should be transparent in nature and should not be open to your influence in any manner. Similarly you too can help your friends to reform themselves by pointing out their defects. But I remember a modern proverb which reads "Ulladai Sonaal Udambu Ariyum"! (If you tell facts the listener will boil). These days if you try to correct an errant person even out of genuine concern, they get angry with you and cut you off.

You may have a question as to what one should practise or learn or mutter to move to the next rung of the ladder. One need not do anything. When he completes one state, he goes to the next state  automatically.

The Vedic Brahmins though moving in the world had close contact with Gods by living a life soaked in Shastra, Vedanta, Mantras, Yagna and divine karmas. They functioned as Gurus too to perpetuate scriptures and divinity.

"Let us worship Vedas and Gods."